# Atomic (plasmapy.atomic)¶

## Introduction¶

The atomic subpackage provides access to information about atoms, ions, isotopes, and other particles.

• The mendeleev Python package provides access to properties of elements, isotopes, and ions in the periodic table of elements.

## Reference/API¶

### Functions¶

 atomic_number(element) Return the number of protons in an atom, isotope, or ion. atomic_symbol(element) Return the atomic symbol. common_isotopes([argument, most_common_only]) Return a list of isotopes of an element with an isotopic abundances greater than zero, or if no input is provided, a list of all such isotopes for every element. electric_charge(particle) Return the electric charge (in coulombs) of a particle. element_name(element) Return the name of an element. half_life(particle[, mass_numb]) Return the half-life in seconds for unstable isotopes and particles, and numpy.inf in seconds for stable isotopes and particles. integer_charge(particle) Return the integer charge of a particle. ionic_symbol(particle[, mass_numb, Z]) Return the ionic symbol of an ion or neutral atom. is_stable(particle[, mass_numb]) Return True for stable isotopes and particles and False for unstable isotopes. isotope_symbol(isotope[, mass_numb]) Return the symbol representing an isotope. isotopic_abundance(isotope[, mass_numb]) Return the isotopic abundances if known, and otherwise zero. known_isotopes([argument]) Return a list of all known isotopes of an element, or a list of all known isotopes of every element if no input is provided. mass_number(isotope) Get the mass number (the number of protons and neutrons) of an isotope. nuclear_binding_energy(particle[, mass_numb]) Return the nuclear binding energy associated with an isotope. nuclear_reaction_energy(*args, **kwargs) Return the released energy from a nuclear reaction. particle_input([wrapped_function, require, …]) Convert arguments to methods and functions to Particle objects. particle_mass(particle, *[, Z, mass_numb]) Return the mass of a particle. particle_symbol(particle[, mass_numb, Z]) Return the symbol of a particle. reduced_mass(test_particle, target_particle) Find the reduced mass between two particles. stable_isotopes([argument, unstable]) Return a list of all stable isotopes of an element, or if no input is provided, a list of all such isotopes for every element. standard_atomic_weight(element) Return the standard (conventional) atomic weight of an element based on the relative abundances of isotopes in terrestrial environments.

### Classes¶

 IonizationState(particle[, ionic_fractions, …]) Representation of the ionization state distribution of a single element or isotope. IonizationStates(inputs, *[, T_e, …]) Describe the ionization state distributions of multiple elements or isotopes. Particle(argument[, mass_numb, Z]) A class for an individual particle or antiparticle. State(integer_charge, ionic_fraction, …)