upper_hybrid_frequency

plasmapy.formulary.parameters.upper_hybrid_frequency(B: Unit('T'), n_e: Unit('1 / m3'), to_hz=False)

Return the upper hybrid frequency.

Aliases: wuh_

Parameters
  • B (Quantity) – The magnetic field magnitude in units convertible to tesla.

  • n_e (Quantity) – The electron number density.

Returns

omega_uh – The upper hybrid frequency in radians per second.

Return type

Quantity

Raises
Warns

UnitsWarning – If units are not provided, SI units are assumed.

Notes

The upper hybrid frequency is given through the relation

\[ω_{uh}^2 = ω_{ce}^2 + ω_{pe}^2\]

where \(ω_{ce}\) is the electron gyrofrequency and \(ω_{pe}\) is the electron plasma frequency.

The upper hybrid frequency is a resonance for electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas, namely for the X-mode. These are waves with their wave electric field being perpendicular to the background magnetic field. In the cold plasma model, i.e. without any finite temperature effects, the resonance acts merely as a resonance such that power can be deposited there. If finite temperature effects are considered, mode conversion can occur at the upper hybrid resonance, coupling to the electrostatic electron Bernstein wave.

Examples

>>> from astropy import units as u
>>> upper_hybrid_frequency(0.2*u.T, n_e=5e19*u.m**-3)
<Quantity 4.00459...e+11 rad / s>
>>> upper_hybrid_frequency(0.2*u.T, n_e=5e19*u.m**-3, to_hz = True)
<Quantity 6.37350...e+10 Hz>
Parameters

to_hz (bool) – Set True to to convert function output from angular frequency to Hz