plasmapy.diagnostics.langmuir.get_electron_temperature(exponential_section, bimaxwellian=False, visualize=False, return_fit=False, return_hot_fraction=False)

Obtain the Maxwellian or bi-Maxwellian electron temperature using the exponential fit method.

  • exponential_section (Characteristic) – The probe characteristic that is being analyzed.

  • bimaxwellian (bool, optional) – If True the exponential section will be fit assuming bi-Maxwellian electron populations, as opposed to Maxwellian. Default is False.

  • visualize (bool, optional) – If True a plot of the exponential fit is shown. Default is False.

  • return_fit (bool, optional) – If True the parameters of the fit will be returned in addition to the electron temperature. Default is False.

  • return_hot_fraction (float, optional) – If True the total fraction of hot electrons will be returned if the population is bi-Maxwellian. Default is False.


T_e – The estimated electron temperature in eV. In case of a bi-Maxwellian plasma an array containing two Quantities is returned.

Return type

Quantity, (ndarray)


In the electron growth region of the probe characteristic the electron current grows exponentially with bias voltage:

\[I_e = I_{es} \textrm{exp} \left( -\frac{e\left(V_P - V \right)}{T_e} \right).\]

In log space the current in this region should be a straight line if the plasma electrons are fully Maxwellian, or exhibit a knee in a bi-Maxwellian case. The slope is inversely proportional to the temperature of the respective electron population:

\[\textrm{log} \left(I_e \right ) \propto \frac{1}{T_e}.\]