- plasmapy.particles.atomic.stable_isotopes(argument: Optional[Union[str, numbers.Integral]] = None, unstable: bool = False) → List[str]¶
Return a list of all stable isotopes of an element, or if no input is provided, a list of all such isotopes for every element.
StableIsotopes – List of all stable isotopes of an element, sorted from lowest mass number. If an element has no stable isotopes, this function returns an empty list.
- Return type
listof strings or empty list
There are 254 isotopes for which no radioactive decay has been observed. It is possible that some isotopes will be discovered to be unstable but with extremely long half-lives. For example, bismuth-209 was recently discovered to have a half-life of about 1.9e19 years. However, such isotopes can be regarded as virtually stable for most applications.
>>> stable_isotopes('H') ['H-1', 'D'] >>> stable_isotopes(44) ['Ru-96', 'Ru-98', 'Ru-99', 'Ru-100', 'Ru-101', 'Ru-102', 'Ru-104'] >>> stable_isotopes('beryllium') ['Be-9'] >>> stable_isotopes('Pb-209') ['Pb-204', 'Pb-206', 'Pb-207', 'Pb-208'] >>> stable_isotopes(118) 
Find unstable isotopes using the
>>> stable_isotopes('U', unstable=True)[:5] # only first five ['U-217', 'U-218', 'U-219', 'U-220', 'U-221']