Particles (plasmapy.particles)

Introduction

The particles subpackage provides access to information about atoms, ions, isotopes, and other particles.

Submodules

See Also

  • The mendeleev Python package provides access to properties of elements, isotopes, and ions in the periodic table of elements.

API

Sub-Packages & Modules

atomic

Functions that retrieve or are related to elemental or isotopic data.

data

A collection of atomic data used in constructing PlasmaPy particles.

decorators

Module used to define the framework needed for the particle_input decorator.

elements

Module for loading atomic data for elements from plasmapy/particles/data/elements.json.

exceptions

Collection of exceptions and warnings for plasmapy.particles.

ionization_state

Objects for storing ionization state data for a single element or for a single ionization level.

ionization_state_collection

A class for storing ionization state data for multiple elements or isotopes.

isotopes

Module for loading isotope data from plasmapy/particles/data/isotopes.json.

nuclear

Functions that are related to nuclear reactions.

parsing

Functionality to parse representations of particles into standard form.

particle_class

The Particle class.

particle_collections

Collections of Particle objects.

serialization

Functionality for JSON deserialization of particle objects.

special_particles

Classes, sets, and dictionaries to store data and taxonomy information for special particles.

symbols

Functions that deal with string representations of atomic symbols and numbers.

Classes

AbstractParticle()

An abstract base class that defines the interface for particles.

AbstractPhysicalParticle()

Base class for particles that are defined with physical units.

CustomParticle(mass, charge[, symbol])

A class to represent custom particles.

DimensionlessParticle(*, mass, charge, symbol)

A class to represent dimensionless custom particles.

IonicLevel(ion[, ionic_fraction, …])

Representation of the ionic fraction for a single ion.

IonizationState(particle[, ionic_fractions])

Representation of the ionization state distribution of a single element or isotope.

IonizationStateCollection(inputs, …)

Describe the ionization state distributions of multiple elements or isotopes.

Particle(argument, numbers.Integral, …)

A class for an individual particle or antiparticle.

ParticleJSONDecoder(*[, object_hook])

A custom JSONDecoder class to deserialize JSON objects into the appropriate particle objects.

ParticleList(particles)

A list like collection of Particle and/or CustomParticle objects.

Inheritance diagram of plasmapy.particles.particle_class.AbstractParticle, plasmapy.particles.particle_class.AbstractPhysicalParticle, plasmapy.particles.particle_class.CustomParticle, plasmapy.particles.particle_class.DimensionlessParticle, plasmapy.particles.ionization_state.IonicLevel, plasmapy.particles.ionization_state.IonizationState, plasmapy.particles.ionization_state_collection.IonizationStateCollection, plasmapy.particles.particle_class.Particle, plasmapy.particles.serialization.ParticleJSONDecoder, plasmapy.particles.particle_collections.ParticleList

Functions

atomic_number(element)

Return the number of protons in an atom, isotope, or ion.

atomic_symbol(element)

Return the atomic symbol.

charge_number(particle)

Return the charge number of a particle.

common_isotopes([argument, most_common_only])

Return a list of isotopes of an element with an isotopic abundances greater than zero, or if no input is provided, a list of all such isotopes for every element.

electric_charge(particle)

Return the electric charge (in coulombs) of a particle.

element_name(element)

Return the name of an element.

half_life(particle[, mass_numb])

Return the half-life in seconds for unstable isotopes and particles, and inf in seconds for stable isotopes and particles.

integer_charge(particle)

Deprecated since version 0.7.0.

ionic_symbol(particle[, mass_numb, Z])

Return the ionic symbol of an ion or neutral atom.

is_stable(particle[, mass_numb])

Return True for stable isotopes and particles and False for unstable isotopes.

isotope_symbol(isotope[, mass_numb])

Return the symbol representing an isotope.

isotopic_abundance(isotope[, mass_numb])

Return the isotopic abundances if known, and otherwise zero.

json_load_particle(fp, *[, cls])

Deserialize a JSON document into the appropriate particle object.

json_loads_particle(s, *[, cls])

Deserialize a JSON string into the appropriate particle object.

known_isotopes([argument])

Return a list of all known isotopes of an element, or a list of all known isotopes of every element if no input is provided.

mass_number(isotope)

Get the mass number (the number of protons and neutrons) of an isotope.

nuclear_binding_energy(particle[, mass_numb])

Return the nuclear binding energy associated with an isotope.

nuclear_reaction_energy(*args, **kwargs)

Return the released energy from a nuclear reaction.

particle_input([wrapped_function, require, …])

Convert arguments to methods and functions to Particle objects.

particle_mass(particle, *[, Z, mass_numb])

Return the mass of a particle.

particle_symbol(particle[, mass_numb, Z])

Return the symbol of a particle.

reduced_mass(test_particle, target_particle)

Find the reduced mass between two particles.

stable_isotopes([argument, unstable])

Return a list of all stable isotopes of an element, or if no input is provided, a list of all such isotopes for every element.

standard_atomic_weight(element)

Return the standard (conventional) atomic weight of an element based on the relative abundances of isotopes in terrestrial environments.

Variables & Attributes

alpha

A Particle instance representing an alpha particle (doubly charged helium-4).

deuteron

A Particle instance representing a positively charged deuterium ion.

electron

A Particle instance representing an electron.

neutron

A Particle instance representing a neutron.

ParticleLike

An object is particle-like if it can be identified as an instance of Particle or CustomParticle, or cast into one.

ParticleZoo

Instance of _ParticleZooClass.

positron

A Particle instance representing a positron.

proton

A Particle instance representing a proton.

triton

A Particle instance representing a positively charged tritium ion.