# Particles (plasmapy.particles)¶

## Introduction¶

The particles subpackage provides access to information about atoms, ions, isotopes, and other particles.

• The mendeleev Python package provides access to properties of elements, isotopes, and ions in the periodic table of elements.

## Reference/API¶

### Functions¶

 atomic_number(element) Return the number of protons in an atom, isotope, or ion. atomic_symbol(element) Return the atomic symbol. common_isotopes(argument, …) Return a list of isotopes of an element with an isotopic abundances greater than zero, or if no input is provided, a list of all such isotopes for every element. electric_charge(particle) Return the electric charge (in coulombs) of a particle. element_name(element) Return the name of an element. half_life(particle, mass_numb) Return the half-life in seconds for unstable isotopes and particles, and numpy.inf in seconds for stable isotopes and particles. integer_charge(particle) Return the integer charge of a particle. ionic_symbol(particle, mass_numb, Z) Return the ionic symbol of an ion or neutral atom. is_stable(particle, mass_numb) Return True for stable isotopes and particles and False for unstable isotopes. isotope_symbol(isotope, mass_numb) Return the symbol representing an isotope. isotopic_abundance(isotope, mass_numb) Return the isotopic abundances if known, and otherwise zero. json_load_particle(fp, *[, cls]) A convenient form of json.load to deserialize a JSON document into a PlasmaPy particle object. json_loads_particle(s, *[, cls]) A convenient form of json.loads to deserialize a JSON string into a PlasmaPy particle object. known_isotopes(argument, …) Return a list of all known isotopes of an element, or a list of all known isotopes of every element if no input is provided. mass_number(isotope) Get the mass number (the number of protons and neutrons) of an isotope. nuclear_binding_energy(particle, mass_numb) Return the nuclear binding energy associated with an isotope. nuclear_reaction_energy(*args, **kwargs) Return the released energy from a nuclear reaction. particle_input(wrapped_function, require, …) Convert arguments to methods and functions to Particle objects. particle_mass(particle, *, Z, mass_numb) Return the mass of a particle. particle_symbol(particle, mass_numb, Z) Return the symbol of a particle. reduced_mass(test_particle, target_particle) Find the reduced mass between two particles. stable_isotopes(argument, …) Return a list of all stable isotopes of an element, or if no input is provided, a list of all such isotopes for every element. standard_atomic_weight(element) Return the standard (conventional) atomic weight of an element based on the relative abundances of isotopes in terrestrial environments.

### Classes¶

 AbstractParticle An abstract base class that defines the interface for particles. CustomParticle(mass, charge, ) = None) A class to represent custom particles. DimensionlessParticle(*, mass, charge) A class to represent dimensionless custom particles. IonizationState(particle[, ionic_fractions]) Representation of the ionization state distribution of a single element or isotope. IonizationStates(inputs, numpy.ndarray], …) Describe the ionization state distributions of multiple elements or isotopes. Particle(argument, numbers.Integral], …) A class for an individual particle or antiparticle. ParticleJSONDecoder(*[, object_hook]) A custom JSONDecoder class to deserialize JSON objects into PlasmaPy particle objects. State(integer_charge, ionic_fraction, …) Named tuple class for representing an ionization state (collections.namedtuple).

### Variables¶

 ParticleZoo Create an object with taxonomy information for special particles. alpha PlasmaPy particle object for an alpha particle deuteron PlasmaPy particle object for a deuteron electron PlasmaPy particle object for an electron neutron PlasmaPy particle object for a neutron positron PlasmaPy particle object for a positron proton PlasmaPy particle object for a proton triton PlasmaPy particle object for a triton