For further details, please refer to the contributor guide’s section on aliases.
An abbreviation for positional arguments.
Particlerepresenting an element, isotope, or ionic level; or
ParticleListincluding only elements, isotopes, or ionic levels.
["He-4 1+", "He-4 2+"], and integers representing atomic numbers are all atom-like.
Examples of objects that are particle-like but not atom-like include
["e-", "e+"]. Additionally,
["He-4", "e-"]is not atom-like because this
listcontains an item that is not atom-like.
Please refer to the glossary entry for particle-like for a full description of valid representations of elements, isotopes, and ions.
- charge number
The electrical charge of a particle in units of the elementary charge. The charge number of an ion or neutral particle is usually denoted as
- integration test
An integration test verifies that multiple software components work together as intended.
Compared to a unit test, an integration test is typically harder to write, slower to run, more difficult to maintain, and less useful at pinpointing the specific cause of a problem. However, integration tests are able to find problems that unit tests cannot. In particular, integration tests are able to find problems at the interfaces between different modules. On average, each integration test covers more lines of code than each related unit test. Because unit tests and integration tests complement each other, both are important constituents of a test suite.
An abbreviation for keyword arguments.
An optimized version of an existing
plasmapyfunction intended for applications where computational efficiency is most important. While most
Quantityobjects created using
astropy.units, lite-functions accept numbers and array_like inputs that are implicitly assumed to be in SI units. The name of a lite-function ends with
_lite. A lite-function can be accessed as the
liteattribute of the corresponding regular function.
formularyfunctions, no validations are performed on the arguments provided to a lite-function for the sake of computational efficiency. When using lite-functions, it is vital to double-check your implementation!
For further details, please refer to the contributor guide’s section on lite-functions.
An element may be represented by a string containing the atomic symbol (case-sensitive), the name of the element, or an integer representing the atomic number. The element iron can be represented as
An isotope may be represented by a string that contains an atomic symbol or element name, followed by a hyphen and the mass number (with no spaces in between). The isotope 56Fe can be represented as
"iron-56". 2H can be represented by
"deuterium", and 3H can be represented by
An ion or neutral atom may be represented by a string that contains a representation of an element or isotope, followed by charge information which is typically an integer representing the charge number and a plus or minus sign to indicate the electrical charge. For example, a deuteron may be represented as
"D 1+"and 56Fe1+ may be represented as
A special particle may be represented by a string that contains the name of the particle (case insensitive) or a standard symbol for it (case insensitive). A neutron can be represented as
"neutron"; a proton can be represented as
"proton"; and an electron can be represented by
DimensionlessParticleinstances are not particle-like because, without normalization information, they do not uniquely identify a physical particle.
For more complete details, refer to
For more complete details, refer to
- real number
Any numeric type that represents a real number. This could include a
int, a dimensionless
Quantity, or any of the
numpy.numbertypes. Note that if a PlasmaPy function expects a dimensional
Quantityand a real number is provided, then the real number is often assumed to have the appropriate SI units.
Most functions in PlasmaPy accept temperature, \(T\), as a
Quantitywith units of temperature (e.g., kelvin) or energy (e.g., electron-volts). A value for energy that is provided will be divided by the Boltzmann constant, \(k_B\), to be converted into units of temperature.
- unit test
A unit test verifies a single unit of behavior, does it quickly, and does it in isolation from other tests [Khorikov, 2020].
Unit tests are intended to provide fast feedback that help pinpoint the locations of errors. Unit tests often abide by the following pattern [Osherove, 2013]:
Arrange: gather inputs and get the system to the state in which the test is expected to run.
Act: make the system under test undertake the operation that is being tested.
Assert: verify that the actual outcome of the act phase matches the expected outcome.
In a unit test for a function, the arrange phase involves collecting or constructing the inputs for the function. The act phase occurs when the function is called with those inputs. The assert phase is when the value returned by the function is compared to the expected result.